Second Earth has a wide variety of governments which are classified into four categories based on the leader(s), or lack thereof.
An anarchy, being the total lack of government, is uncommon on Second Earth. A few citizens of organized government believe in anarchy as a viable system, though if a government is destroyed, an anarchy will immediately follow.
Somalia, a country in Second Earth, is a modern example of an anarchy . It is widely considered to be an anarchy because of the raging civil war and the regression towards clan-based order. The economy of Somalia, surprisingly enough, is functioning better than some other African countries, with a GDP of $600 per capita.
A monarchy is defined by Socrates as being a government "ruled by one", though this can also refer to an autocracy, depotism, dictatorship, etc. In Second Earth, there are currently 45 monarchist countries, 31 of which actually have monarchs . A monarchy can be absolute (with no limit to the morarch's power), constitutional (with a document that controls the monarch's powers), or some combination of the two. Notable monarchies in Second Earth include Barbados, Belgium, New Zealand, Sweden, etc.
An oligarchy is a system in which a small group of people reign supreme. Said group may have similar qualities, interests, or relations. Oligarchies are often peaceful; war is almost nonexistent between them. Examples of oligarchies include Malaysia, Russia, and South Africa.
Democracy, or, a government ruled by many, is the most common government on Second Earth. Since most citizens have equal representation in a democracy, it is typically considered the most appealing. Bobby's home courtry on Second Earth, the United States of America, is Republic (which is a variation of a democracy in which people elect people to make decisions for them).
Second Earth is generally considered to have seven continents. The seven continents are usually thought to be
- North America
- South America
There are other systems of continents; some people do not consider Australia and/or Antarctica to be continents. Others may group Europe and Asia together as Eurasia, or combine the Americas into one continent. The country of North Korea is known for its controversial system of two continents - America and Afro-Eurasia.
Typically, Second Earth has a count of 245 countries. This includes theocracies, anarchies, independent colonies, island nations, and counts Antarctica as a country. 192 of said countries are part of the United Nations, a group of national leaders who strive to achieve world peace.
Second Earth has five oceans . Prior to the year 2000, it was considered to have four oceans. Since all five oceans are connected, some also consider the water bodies to be one world ocean. However, it is generally accepted that only five oceans exist. In order from largest to smallest, they are
- Pacific Ocean
- Atlantic Ocean
- Indian Ocean
- Southern Ocean (named in the year 2000)
- Arctic Ocean
The planet Earth is part of a solar system of eight planets, three dwarf planets, and one planetoid . It is so named because all these celestial bodies orbit around a star called Sol. Earth is the third planet in this series.
The solar system is part of a galaxy called the Milky Way. In turn, this galaxy is part of a supercluster called Local Supercluster. This implies that the boundaries of a territory extend very far, as superclusters may extend for millions of lightyears.
The planets, in order of distance from the sun, are
Second Earth scientists have defined a planet as "any object in order around the sun whose diameter is greater than 2000 kilometers, whose shape is stable due to its own gravity, and that is dominant in its immediate neighborhood."